A veneer wall is defined as:A wall used as a facing but not bonded or contributing to the strength of the backing wall or framed structure.
Masonry possess normally a larger load capacity for bending around a vertical axis than a horizontal. In this module, it is therefore assumed that the loads are transferred to the vertical columns of wall-ties through masonry spanning in the horizontal directions.
The stresses are determined using this assumptions and is compared with the flexural strength around the vertical axis, i.e. fxk2. Furthermore are the forces in the wall-ties determined for later design through the module “Tie-wire”
For veneer walls a minimum value of 2 wall-ties pr square meters has been chosen here. This demand can be fulfilled using e.g. following combinations of horizontal and vertical distances: 2500 mm x 200 mm, 1000 mm x 500 mm
The vertical distance must be equal to an integer number of courses. Normally the distances are determined by the dimensions of available insulation
The value will be transferred from the heading "Masonry". The value can of course be overwritten
The effective thickness is normally equal to the design value of the thickness. If the joints are recessed, the thickness should be reduced with the design value of the recess.
Rules in the N.A. for minimum thickness of walls shall be applied
The horizontal load is normally the wind-load on the facing wall. The wind-load in cavity is assumed to be zero. This assumption is considered to be conservative, because any openings in the front part of the cavity is presumed to be connected to the outer part rather than the inner part (the building) implying any wind pressure in the cavity will have the same direction (or sign) as the wind-load on the facing wall.